CAO (Computer Architecture & Organization) Question Bank for ECE & MCA

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Question Bank

1.a)Find (1001101-101010101)using 1’s complement
b)What is instruction cycle?
c)Write the advantage of RISC over CISC?
d)Draw the circuit diagram and truth table  for full adder?
e)Draw the hierarchy of memory?why memory hierarchy is important in computer system?
f)Differentiate between synchronous and asynchronous modes of data trasfer
1.a)What are 2’s compliment  ?give its signifiance ?
b)What is interrupt ?give the steps for handling interrupt?
c)Compare RISC and CISC?
d)Realise full adder using two half adders and logic gates ?
e)What is auxiliary memory ?
f)What are the different forms of parallelism ?
                                   PART –A
1.a)What is parity ?give its significance ?
b)What is one addresss ,two address and three address instruction formats ?
c)What is register direct addressing mode ?give an example ?
d)Draw the circuit diagram and truth table for half adder ?
e)What is cache memory?Mention its advantages?
f)What is the use of priority interrupt?
1.a)What sin magnitude presentation ?give an example ?
b)Draw the structure of basic computer system ?
c)What is addressing mode ?list any 4 addressing modes ?
d)Draw the diagram 4 bit adder ?
e)What is virtual memory ?why it is significant ?
f)What is DMA ?write it’s advantages ?


1.a) Convert the following binary numbers to decimal and hexadecimal numbers 1011011,11101101,1011011,11001100.
b)Convert hexadecimal numbers to binary and octal numbers .FACDF,EEFFC,CF979,79797 .
2.a)Represent the number (+56.5)decimal as a floating point binary number with 24 bits .the normalized fraction mantissia has 16 bits and the exponent has 8 bits
b)Obtain 9’s compliment of the following 8 bit decimal number
3.a)Perform the following  arthmetic operations with decimal numbers using signed 10’s compliment representation for negative numbers.
i) (-666) +(+785)  ii) (-638) + (+188).
b)Derive the circuits for a 3 bit parity generator and 4 bit parity checker using an even parity bit.
4.a)Show the bit configuration of a 24 bit register when it content represents the decimal equivalent  of 280 i) In binary ii)In BCD iii)In ASCII using 8 bits with even parity.
b)Explain the components of the computer system
5.a)Discuss various functional units of a computer.
b)Explain the following with examples for each .
i) fixed point representation ii)Interger  representation iii)Floating  point  representation  .
6.a)What is a bus ? draw the figure to show how functional units are interconnected using a bus and explain .b)Describe fixed point representation with examples .
7. a)Draw the basic structure of computer and explain .
b)Explain about sign magnitude and 2’s complement approaches  for representing the fixed point numbers .why 2’s complement is preferable .
8.a)What are the different types of information handled by a computer ?explain .
b)Represent the number (+46.5)10 as a floating  point binary number with 24 bits .The normalized  fraction mantissa has 16 bits and the exponent has 8 bits.
9.a)Discuss three representation of signed integers with suitable examples .
b)Expalin the components of computer system.
10.a)Explain the  functional  architecture of the computer system.
b)Discuss the concept of compliments used to represent signed numbers
11.A)Describe the connections between the processor and memory with a neat structure daigram
b)Find 2’s compliment of the following
i)10010    ii)111000 iii)0101010 iv)111111
12.a)Discuss about fixed point and floating point representations?
b)What are functions of ALU and explain .


1.a)what is the differences between a direct and indirect addressing instructions ? how many references to memory are needed for each type of instruction to bring an operand into a process register ?
b)Draw circuit for one stage adder and logic unit and explain each block .
2.a)List out the instruction formats used in the processor and discuss with example .
b)Compare high and low level languages  with respect to execution time .
3.List out the basic computer hardware components and explain operation . Draw the Flow Chart for the computer operations  and discuss each block
4.a)Explain about  machine instruction characteristics
b)Explain about  addressing modes operation and what is the importance of it.
5.a)Explain the various instruction  type .
b)Draw and explain the flow chart for instruction type.
6. a)Explain various instruction formats with examples.
b)Write short notes on process organisation.
7.a)List  and explain the characteristics of machine instructions .
b)Discuss instruction cycle in detail .
8.a)Describe various addressing modes in detail .
b)Give a short note on instruction pipe lining .
9. a)List and explain the steps involved in the execution of complete instriction.
b)What is micro operation?briefly explain the arithmatiic micro operations?
10. a)What is instruction cycle?briefly explain with the help of state diagram ?
b)Briefly explain the arithematic logic shift unit .
11 a)Explain the memory reference insructions?give examples?
b)List and explain the shift micro operations
12 a)What is RTL ? Explain with suitable examples ?what is its significance instructions
b)What is interrupt ? explain input and output interrupt ?


1.a)Discuss about the process organisation in computer ?
b)Discuss about the register oraganisation in computer ?
2. a)Define the following  terms ,micro operations ,micro instructions ,micro programs ,micro code .
b)Explain the difference between hardwired control and micro programmed control.
3. a)Draw the block diagram of micro program control organisation and explain.
b)Discuss how selection of address for control memory.
4 a)Discuss about pipeline processn
b)Draw the circuit for status register bits and explain.
5 Discuss the basic organisation of a micro programmed control unit and  the generator of control signals  using micro program .
6.Explain the concept of micro programmed control unit ?
7. a)Explain the variety of techniques available for sequencing of micro instructions based on the format of the address information in the microinstruction .
b)Compare and contrast hardwired control unit with micro programmed control unit .
8 a)Hardwired control unit  is faster than micro programmed control unit ?justify this statement
b)Briefly explain  the  basic organisation of micro programmed control unit and the generation of control signals using micro program .
9. a)Expalin the organisation of registers ?
b)Explain how micro insructions execution takes place.
10 a)Explain the various addressing modes with examples .
b)Explain the basic organisation of micro programmed control unit ?
11 a)Explain micro instuctions sequencing in detail
b)With a neat diagram explain the internal organisation of a processor
12 a) Explain different adderssing modes .
b)Mention the advantages and disadvantages of micro programmed control hardwired control .


1. .a)Derive an algorithm in flow chart form for the non restoring method of fixed point binary division .
b)Derive an algorithm for evaluating the square root of a binary fixed point number
2. a)Draw the block diagram of 4 bit BCD adder and write operation .
b)Explain about registers for floating  point arithematic operation .
3. a)Discuss about one stage of a decimal arithmetic unit.
b)Discuss about  adding  of decimal numbers methods.
4. a)Show that there can be no mantissa overflow after a  multiplication operation.
b)Derive an algorithm in flow chart form for the comparsion of two signed binary numbers when negative numbers are in signed 2’s compliment representation .
i) By means of a subtraction operation with the signed 2’s complement numbers
ii)By scanning and comparing pairs of bit from left to right
5. a)Perform the arihmatic operations (+70)+(-80)in binary using signed 2’s complement representation for negative numbers .
b)Explain the booth’s algorithm for multiplication of signed two’s complement numbers .
6. a)perform the arithematic operations (+70)+(+80)and (-70)+(-80) in binary using signed 2’s complement representation for negative numbers .
b)Draw the flow chart for floating point diision and explain
7. a)Perform the arithematic operations (+42)+(-13)and (-42)-(-13)in binary using signed 2’s complement representation for negative numbers .
b)Discuss floating point arithematic operations with examples.
8. a)With an example explain how BCD addition is performed .
b)Illustrate booths multiplication algorithm with an example .
9. a)Explain the issue involved with multiplication operation
b)Design 4bit adder /subtractor and explain its functions.
10. .a)Design carry look ahead adder and explain its function
b)Derive and explain an algorithm for adding and subtracting  2 floating point binary numbers .
11. a)Explain hardware implementation of binary multiplier with example.
b)Discuss decimal arithamatic operations.
12. a)Explain division algorithm with example .
b)Explain booth multiplication algorithm with example.


1. a)Draw the memory hierarchy in a computer system and explain each block .
b)Discuss importance of cache memory organisation .
2.a)what is the importance of interface module in computer system ?
b)what is the differences between isolated I/O and memory mapped I/O ?what are the advantages and disadvantages of each ?

3.a)Explain the advantages of symmetric multiprocessors over uniprocessors
b)Discuss the various schemes to solve the cache coherence problem .
4.a)List the characteristics of multiprocessors .
b)Draw the interconnection structures of computer systems ?
5.a)Discuss about the addresses translation in virtual memory in computer system .
b)Explain different types of mapping functions in cache memory .
6.a)Draw the block of a typical synchronous communication interface and explain operation .
b)List the modes of a transfer data to external devices and discuss operation
7.a)Explain the pipe line process with timming of instruction .
b)Explain the operation of RISC pipe line .
8.Breif the following : a)parallel arbitration .b)inter process arbitration .

Important questions

1. Explain about  mapping   function.What are the different methods the cache can be mapped explain in detail.
2.a)Why does DMA have priority over the CPU when both request a memory transfer?
b) Differentiate  synchronous  and  asynchronous  data  transfer modes.
3.a)Discuss about multi threading.
b)Discuss about  vector computations.
4.Brief the following a)Time Shared common bus b)Inter process arbitration
5a)i)How 128x8 RAM chips are needed to provide a memory capacity of 2048 bytes.
ii)How many lines of the address bus must be used to access 2048 bytes of memory.How many other lines will be common to all chips
iii)How many lines must be decoder for chip selection?Specify the size of decoders
b)Discuss about  auxiliary memory devices
6.a)List the importance of handshaking in data transfer operations
b)Discuss about serial communication system
7.a)What are sub operations performed in arithmetic pipeline
b)Explain about  pipeline process organisation
8.Brief the following a)Inter process communication b)Inter process Synchronization
9.a)Discuss the memory hierarchy in a computer system with regard to speed ,size and cost .
b)explain the three types of mapping procedure related to cache memory organisation at length .
10.a)what is an interrupt ?What are the different types of interrupts known to you .describe briefly ?
b)How is data transmitted between main memory and secondary memory using DMA ?
11.a)What is the cache coherence problem ?What are the conditions for Incoherence? Discuss solutions for cache coherence problem .
12.a)Discuss the characteristics o multiprocessors .
b)Explain how synchronization ia achieved in multiprocessor system .
13 a)Draw and explain associative cache organisation .
  b)Explain brief virtual memory.
14.a)Give a brief note on various peripheral devices.
 b)Discuss the features of intel 8089 IOP.
15.a)List and expalin the aplications of multi processors.
 b)Illustrarte the concept of multi threading with examples.
16.a)Differentiate between tightly coupled and loosely coupled multi processors.
b)What is the need for bus arbitration? Explain in detail the two static bus arbitration procedures.
17a)Write a note on memory hierarchy .
b)What is associative memory ?Why is it faster than main memory ?Explain it’s hardware organisation in detail .
18.a)Give a detail ed note on parallel priority intrerrupt .
b)Explain the operation of DMA controller with a neat block diagram .
19.a)Write a short note on cache  coherence .
b)Illustrate vector computations with examples .
20.a)With a neat diagram explain the working of 8*8 omega switching network .
b)Explain various  mechanisms  for achieveing  synchronisation in multi processor systems .
21a)Explain direct mapped cache organisation in detail .
b)What is virtual memory ?what is the relation between address and memory space in a virtual system ?explain  with the help of examples.
22.Write note on the following :
i)Programmed I/O ii)Interrupt  driven I/O iii)Serial communication iv)DMA
23.a)Describe the characteristics of multi processors .
b)Discuss MESI protocol in detail .
24.a)Give a note on inter processor communication .
b)Explain various mechanisms for achieving synchronisation in multi processor system.
What is mapping  function?what are the ways the cache can bne mapped ?explain  in detail?
25.a)What is multi processor system ?explain the advantages of multi processor over uni processors.
b)Explain the function of typical input-output interface.
26a)Analyse the memory hierarchy in terms of speed ,size and cost .
b)Design 64k*16 meemory chip using 16 k *8 memory chips .
27.a)What are hand shaking signals explain the handshake control of data transfer during input and output operations .
b)What is parallel  processing ? Explain any parallel processing mechanism .
28a)Explain the address translation in virtual memory .
b)Explain different types of mapping functions in cache memory ?
29.a)How data transfers can be controlled using handshaking technique ?
b)Explain organisation of multiprocessor system with neat sketch .
30.a)Explain about associative memory.
b)Explain internal organization of memory chips
31.a)With aneat sketch expalin the working principle of DMA
b)Expalin the interconnection structure for multi processor systems.